cervical cancer screening and vaccination awareness

octubre 5, 2021 Agustin No comments exist

Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix. It is due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Early on, typically no symptoms are seen. Later symptoms may include abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain or pain during sexual intercourse. While bleeding after sex may not be serious, it may also indicate the presence of cervical cancer.Human papillomavirus infection (HPV) causes more than 90% of cases;most people who have had HPV infections, however, do not develop cervical cancer.Other risk factors include smoking, a weak immune system, birth control pills, starting sex at a young age, and having many sexual partners, but these are less important.Cervical cancer typically develops from precancerous changes over 10 to 20 years.About 90% of cervical cancer cases are squamous cell carcinomas, 10% are adenocarcinoma, and a small number are other types.Diagnosis is typically by cervical screening followed by a biopsy.[Medical imaging is then done to determine whether or not the cancer has spread.
HPV vaccines protect against two to seven high-risk strains of this family of viruses and may prevent up to 90% of cervical cancers. As a risk of cancer still exists, guidelines recommend continuing regular Pap tests.Other methods of prevention include having few or no sexual partners and the use of condomd. Cervical cancer screening using the Pap test or acetic acid can identify precancerous changes, which when treated, can prevent the development of cancer.Treatment may consist of some combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.Five-year survival rates in the United States are 68%. Outcomes, however, depend very much on how early the cancer is detected.
Worldwide, cervical cancer is both the fourth-most common cause of cancer and the fourth-most common cause of death from cancer in women.In 2012, an estimated 528,000 cases of cervical cancer occurred, with 266,000 deaths.This is about 8% of the total cases and total deaths from cancer.About 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of deaths occur in developing countries. In low-income countries, it is one of the most common causes of cancer death.In developed countries, the widespread use of cervical screening programs has dramatically reduced rates of cervical cancer. In medical research, the most famous immortalized cell line, known as HeLa, was developed from cervical cancer cells of a woman named Henrietta Lacks.Checking cervical cells with the Papanicolaou test (Pap test) for cervical pre-cancer has dramatically reduced the number of cases of, and mortality from, cervical cancer.Liquid-based cytology may reduce the number of inadequate samples. Pap test screening every three to five years with appropriate follow-up can reduce cervical cancer incidence up to 80%.[Abnormal results may suggest the presence of precancerous changes, allowing examination and possible preventive treatment, known as colposcopy. The treatment of low-grade lesions may adversely affect subsequent fertility and pregnancy. Personal invitations encouraging women to get screened are effective at increasing the likelihood they will do so. Educational materials also help increase the likelihood women will go for screening, but they are not as effective as invitations.
According to the 2010 European guidelines, the age at which to start screening ranges between 20 and 30 years of age, but preferentially not before age 25 or 30 years, and depends on burden of the disease in the population and the available resources.
In the United States, screening is recommended to begin at age 21, regardless of age at which a woman began having sex or other risk factors.Pap tests should be done every three years between the ages of 21 and 65. In women over the age of 65, screening may be discontinued if no abnormal screening results were seen within the previous 10 years and no history of CIN2 or higher exists.HPV vaccination status does not change screening rates.
A number of recommended options exist for screening those 30 to 65.This includes cervical cytology every 3 years, HPV testing every 5 years, or HPV testing together with cytology every 5 years.Screening is not beneficial before age 25, as the rate of disease is low. Screening is not beneficial in women older than 60 years if they have a history of negative results. The American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline has recommend for different levels of resource availability.
Pap tests have not been as effective in developing countries. This
is in part because many of these countries have an impoverished health care infrastructure, too few trained and skilled professionals to obtain and interpret Pap tests, uninformed women who get lost to follow-up, and a lengthy turn-around time to get results.Visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing have been tried, though with mixed success.

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